Influent Flow Monitoring at Wastewater Treatment Plant

Influent Flow Monitoring
Figure 1: Signature flow meter  with LaserFlow
sensor sheltered in weather enclosure.
Four Teledyne ISCO Signature Flow Meters, each configured with 360 LaserFlow sensors, were installed at the inlet of a very large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This flow monitoring technology provided a unique solution for the challenging flow conditions at this site. Non-contact Doppler laser technology was chosen by the user for their continuous and maintenance free flow monitoring.

Inlet Section Overview

Flow monitoring in the wastewater treatment process is key for verifying performance of the plant as a whole, as well as its individual processing sections. Due to the enormity of the plant’s processing capacity sewage streams are transferred to the plant through different main sewers, which merge into four rectangular inlet channels, each with a width of 1.5 m. At this location, the Signature flow meters and their non-contact LaserFlow sensors were installed over each of four inlet channels and sheltered in all-weather enclosures (Figure1).

Influent Flow Monitoring
Figure 2: Multi-point/Multi-depth velocity method.
Site Challenges

Sludge buildup at the bottom of the channels and high sediment concentration in the flow streams were the major problems for continuous flow rate measurement. The performance of submersible, continuous wave Doppler sensors, previously installed at the site, had been adversely affected by site conditions and required costly maintenance.

Finding the Solution with LaserFlow

The Teledyne Isco distributor recommended using the non-contact LaserFlow sensor at the site. The conditions at the bottom of the channels were less than ideal for traditional flow monitoring. Being placed over the channel LaserFlow overcomes this. First, the unit’s built-in ultra-sonic level transducer determines the stream’s level. This is done by emitting an ultrasonic pulse and measuring the time it takes for the echo to return from the stream’s surface. By using ultrasonic level measurement the sensor can calculate a subsurface point at which to focus an optical laser. The frequency shift (Doppler shifting) of the returned light from the laser is proportionate to the water’s velocity. LaserFlow is able to measure velocities at up to fifteen points below the water’s surface. Being able to measure at multiple points minimizes the effects of turbulence and eliminates the need for manual profiling. Above average results are achieved by producing a level measurement and an exceptionally accurate mean velocity reading.

Measuring Results and Feedback
Influent Flow Monitoring
Figure 3: Flow Rate Measuring Results for four
inlet channels in dry weather conditions.

Thanks to its non-contact technology for velocity and level measurement, the Signature configured with a LaserFlow was capable of providing consistent and continuous flow rate results (Figure 3).

The end-user was able to reduce costs of service by limiting site visits to periodic inspections of the LaserFlow without the need for stopping flow, entering into the manhole and/or cleaning the sensors.

For more information, contact Instrument Specialties, Inc. by calling  407-324-7800 or visiting

How to Zero and Span the SOR 815DT Smart Differential Pressure Transmitter

SOR 815DTThe SOR 815DT smart differential pressure transmitter is a rugged, compact, light weight, loop powered instrument that is ideally suited for hazardous locations and hostile environments where space is limited. The 815DT offers many industry standard outputs to meet applications where low cost, discrete and continuous monitoring is required or preferred. This versatile instrument may be used to reliably measure differential pressure, level or flow.

Zero and Span
  1. The 815DT has the ability to easily set the zero and span set points with a magnet externally.
  2. Located on the casting is a circle for zero and a triangle for span.
  3. To set the zero, bring the pressure to the desired value, and touch the magnet to the circle for 3 seconds.
  4. This will set the current pressure to zero.
  5. This is the same process for setting the span.
  6. Also, by holding the magnet to the circle and triangle at the same time, you will enter a test mode.
Instrument Specialties, Inc.

Applying Electric Valve Actuators: Needs Assessment

Electric valve actuator
Electric valve actuator (AUMA)
Electric actuators can be found in all varieties of shapes and sizes in waste water treatment plants.  Since the valves to be automated vary in both design and dimension, size consideration and design through an early "needs assessment" is a critical component of the specification process.

Defined as an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service, engineers, during this step, will specify what the solution will accomplish, without describing how it will do it.  Specifications usually originate from either design constraints or functional requirements.

As part of the spec requirements and need assessment, these are a number of the questions that engineers should consider, as early in the process as possible, in assessing the needs for a valve actuator.
  1. What sort of valve will be needed?  Does the process require linear control valves or rotary quarter turn valves?  This will define the appropriate type of actuator, as well.
  2. What is the specification for the actuator sizing? The size will need to match the needed thrust and torque as well as the type of valve.  The efficient actuator, to ensure good valve control, can be neither oversized nor undersized.
  3. What are the power requirements, e.g. how much energy will be needed to run the actuator?  Higher voltage actuators use more energy. Low power requirements mean that backup power is more economical.  In most settings, there is a need to save money by running as efficiently as possible, and there are also environmental sustainability hurdles. 
  4. Operating Conditions:  Is there severe weather or will the actuator be under water? What is the range of temperatures expected? Keep in mind that not all actuators can work in all conditions.
  5. Will the actuator need to run continuously or intermittently? Consider the variation needed in the process. Actuators that have continual modulation are more able to respond to variations in the control requests.
  6. Consideration of environmental safety conditions.  What about dust or explosive gases?
Ultimately, the needs assessment will help guide the specification process, with the goal of ensuring how well the final product will perform.  It will pay off to be as detailed as possible during this phase.  Once a needs assessment is finalized, you will be in a better position to specify the right actuator to meet your process requirements.

For more information on specifying electric valve actuators, contact Instrument Specialties by calling 407-324-7800 or visit their web site at

Temperature Sensors from SOR

Temperature Sensors from SOR
SOR manufactures a complete line of thermocouple elements, Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) sensors, thermowells, industrial assemblies and specialty temperature sensors.

All RTDs are 100% tested to insure that the accuracy and the continuity of the product have not been affected by the manufacturing process. The standard sheath material on all RTDs specified in this section is 316SS. Other sheath materials and coatings are available.

All industrial thermocouples are manufactured using a high purity mineral oxide insulation and a metallic sheath. The standard sheath material unless otherwise noted is 316SS.

Review the embedded catalog below, or download you own SOR Temperature Sensor Catalog from this link.

High Velocity Flow Monitoring in a Sanitary Sewer

View of flow inside the pipe
View of flow inside the pipe.
A sanitary sewer within a local municipality had two options for flow monitoring applications. The first application was in front of an overflow bypass gate where standard area velocity flow monitoring technologies were installed and working, but only intermittently. When the gate closed, the water surcharged the pipe until it overflowed into the bypass weir. The AV sensor was no longer able to read the bypass flow because the water at the bottom of the channel was no longer flowing. Another challenge was with the pipe joints creating turbulence.

The alternate flow monitoring location was upstream, in a 42 inch pipe, and on the side of a hill. The level, which is 1-3 inches deep with velocity of 4.5 ft/s, was an additional challenge. Standard in-pipe area velocity sensors are not able to operate in conditions where high velocity effects the depth of the water accelerating over the top of the sensor (Bernoulli Effect) resulting in lower recorded levels.
Chart of the sensors output
Chart of the sensors output (click for larger view)

The solution in this application was LaserFlow. LaserFlow uses a non-contact sensor that utilizes a non-contact ultrasonic level sensor and a laser to read the velocity below the surface. In this application the LaserFlow allowed for accurate readings to be taken even in the most turbulent of flows.

After the initial setup the LaserFlow sensor worked well for several hours. When the level decreased, the laser started to focus on the bottom of the channel due to the steep slope of the pipe. There were two options to correct this issue:
Flow Meter technician in the pipe adjusting the LaserFlow
Flow Meter technician in the pipe
adjusting the LaserFlow.
  • Send a technician back into the confined space to position the LaserFlow sensor parallel with the flow stream. 
  • Change the slope programming setting to match the slope of the pipe without having to enter into the confined space.
It was decided the slope setting would be changed. After determining the slope of the pipe from a 12 foot rise over a 150 foot run =8% slope. After a few program adjustments, the sensor worked flawlessly.

For more information about the Teledyne ISCO LaserFlow, contact Instrument Specialties, Inc. by visiting or by calling 407-324-7800.

AUMA Electric Actuators Models SA and SQ: Setting the Limit Switches

This video below explains how to set the internal limit switches on the AUMA SA and SQ electric actuators.

AUMA is the world's leading manufacturer of electric actuators and gearboxes.
  • SA type actuators - range for open-close duty and positioning duty are rated for class A and B or types of duty S2 - 15 min. A special version for longer running is available for the S2 - 30 min duty.
  • The modulating actuators of the SAR range are rated for class C or types of duty S4 - 25 %. Special versions for S4 - 50 % and S5 - 25 % are also available.
  • SQ type actuators - range for open-close duty and positioning duty are rated for class A and B or types of duty S2 - 15 min. 
  • The modulating actuators of the SQR range are rated for class C or types of duty S4 - 25 %.

Instrument Specialties Inc. Appointed New Exclusive Rep for AUMA Actuators in South Florida Municipal Market

AUMA, the world's leading manufacturer of electric actuators and gearboxes has appointed Instrument Specialties Inc. (ISI) as exclusive rep for the South Florida municipal (water) market. AUMA distinguishes the municipal market as sewage treatment plants, water treatment plants, drinking water distribution, sewage disposal, seawater desalination and steel constructions for water systems to operate weirs and sluice gates.
AUMA actuators are ubiquitous in the water industry due to their broad product offering which includes multi-turn, part-turn, and linear actuators, combined with a robust design that includes high corrosion protection, long service life, and low maintenance.

For more information, call 407-324-7800 of visit

In-Situ Aqua TROLL 500

In-Situ Aqua TROLL 500
In-Situ Aqua TROLL 500
Whether you’re spot checking a tank or  conducting long-term monitoring at remote sites, the In-Situ Aqua TROLL 500 has you covered. This cost-effective multi-probe enables wireless data collection when used as a handheld, plus easy integration with control systems and telemetry for long-term installation.

With interchangeable sensors, the Aqua TROLL 500 replaces multiple instruments and saves time in the field to reduce overall monitoring costs. Highly stable sensors need minimal maintenance and calibration, giving you confidence in your data. Just plug the sonde into a Wireless TROLL Com, datalogger, control system or telemetry and you’re ready to go.

The Aqua TROLL 500 fits a wide variety of applications, including:
  • Surface water spot sampling and profiling
  • Remote monitoring via telemetry
  • Long-term drinking water, wastewater or stormwater monitoring
  • Aquaculture
  • Low-flow groundwater sampling and remediation
  • Base sensor configuration includes: RDO Optical Dissolved Oxygen, pH/ORP, Turbidity, Conductivity, Temperature and Pressure, Salinity, resistivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Density
  • Ammonium, Chloride, and Nitrate Ion-Selective Electrode (ISE) available
  • Interchangeable sensors, wet-mateable
  • Sub 2” antifouling wiper cleans all sensors for higher quality data in long-term deployments
  • Wireless Mobile Bluetooth® connection for Android (VuSitu app), and Win-Situ 5 for PC laptop
  • Site tagging and GPS coordinates functions available via mobile app
  • LCD display gives a snapshot of instruments health and wireless connectivity
  • Wide sensor range for performance in a variety of applications
  • Automatic environmental compensation eliminates data post-processing
  • Easy integration with PLC/SCADA control systems, data loggers, and telemetry—no adapters or confusing proprietary communication protocols
  • Redesigned pH and ISE reference for 3X sensor stability
  • Corrosion-resistant housing and abrasion-resistant RDO sensor
  • Compatible with Low-Flow system (sold separately)

Webinar - The Latest on Teledyne LaserFlow, Extreme Applications - July 25

Water and Wastewater Webinar:
The Latest on LaserFlow, Extreme Applications
  • Wednesday, July 25, 2018
  • 10:00 AM CST
  • Speaker: Rick Dey, Key Accounts Manager - Flow Meter Products
LaserflowThis webinar will discuss how the LaserFlow is being used where other technologies have failed. Low velocity, high velocity, deep or shallow water; situations like these are no problem for the LaserFlow.

The LaserFlow™ velocity sensor remotely measures flow in open channels with non-contact Laser Doppler Velocity technology and non-contact Ultrasonic Level technology. The sensor uses advanced technology to measure velocity with a laser beam at single or multiple points below the surface of the wastewater stream.
  • The sensor uses an ultrasonic level sensor to measure the level and determines a sub-surface point to measure velocity. The sensor then focuses its laser beam at this point and measures the frequency shift of the returned light.
  • An industry first, a touch-button interface for an intuitive user experience and tool-free operation.
  • The LaserFlow is ideal for a broad range of wastewater monitoring applications.
  • SafeSwap enables safe and quick replacement of gas sensors without turning off the instrument.
  • During submerged conditions, flow measurement continues without interruption with optional continuous wave Doppler Ultrasonic Area Velocity technology.
  • With its specially designed mounting bracket in place, the LaserFlow can be deployed and removed from street level. This avoids the risk and expense of confined space entry. A variety of communication options enable programming and data retrieval from a remote location. Information about data quality can be recorded and transmitted with the flow data.
  • Additionally, built-in diagnostic tools simplify installation, maintenance, and advanced communication options reduce site visits.

Happy Fourth of July from Instrument Specialties!

"America was not built on fear. America was built on courage, on imagination and an unbeatable determination to do the job at hand."

Harry S. Truman

Jacoby Tarbox Hy-Sight™ Hygienic Sight Flow Indicators

Jacoby-Tarbox Hy-Sight
Jacoby-Tarbox Hy-Sight™
Jacoby-Tarbox Hy-Sight™ features the cleanest glass to metal transition point, resulting from precision boro glass, positive stop design controlling compression of tightened tolerance EHEDG inspired O-ring capture.

  • Largest View
  • Highest Pressure Rating
  • Hygienic Clamp Connection
  • ASME BPE SF4 (15Ra μin Mechanical & Electropolished) Wetted Surface Finish
  • FDA and USP Class IV Compliant Seals
  • Surpass CIP and SIP Requirements
  • 316L SS Standard, Hast C22, Hast C276 and AL6XN Available
  • Full Vacuum to 300 PSIG (20.7 Bar)
For more information, visit Instrument Specialties Inc. at or call 407-324-7800.

Mining Operations Optimize Dewatering Processes

Dewatering ProcessesEffective water management is critical to both open-pit and sub-surface mining operations. Mine dewatering is an essential part of resource extraction, as it lowers the water table around the mine or quarry. Effectively managed dewatering processes typically employ continuous water level monitoring. Mine dewatering is usually undertaken for several reasons:
  • To ensure stability of mine walls during and after excavation—In open-pit mines, a water table that is too high can destabilize mine walls, haulage roads, and slopes. Water pressure reduces the stability of mine walls and can lead to sliding and collapse of materials in the slope. In underground mines, the inflow of water must be controlled to prevent flooding; however, a balance must be maintained so that groundwater levels are not needlessly depleted.
  • To optimize mine production and reduce operational costs—Effective dewatering operations create dry conditions so that low strength aquifer sequence materials (sands, gravel, and clays) can be safely excavated, reducing drilling and blasting costs. Additionally, wear and corrosion on equipment is minimized, and the possibility of pump burn out is reduced by accurately monitoring drawdown. Haulage costs for unsaturated excavated material is significantly less than for saturated materials, further reducing operational cost.

Active Stormwater Runoff Monitoring

Active Stormwater Runoff Monitoring
Stormwater runoff is a major contributor to surface water pollution, perpetuating ever-increasing state and federal demands for stormwater runoff control and reporting. A wide range of flexible instrumentation enables Teledyne Isco to meet non-point source discharge monitoring requirements.

Regulating Stormwater Discharge

The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Stormwater Program regulates stormwater discharges from potential sources that include both point and non-point sources. Operators and managers of storm sewer systems, construction sites, croplands, industrial sectors, and urban areas may be required to obtain authorization to discharge stormwater, in accordance with both federal law, and often more stringent state and local regulations.

To meet these requirements, businesses, municipalities, and other organizations must develop comprehensive stormwater monitoring programs. These programs typically consist of several parts, including the collection and storage of storm event data on rainfall, flow, and measured pollutant levels, as well as taking water samples during the storm event for laboratory analysis. Representative sample collection is dependent upon crucial factors such as timing, flow volume, and water quality.

Rapidly changing storm conditions can present several challenges to accurate sample collection, monitoring of system status, program adjustment needs, and data retrieval. With instrumentation from Teledyne Isco, a site-specific system can provide precise automatic sampling with real-time data collection and flexible programming. All of this and more can be achieved from remote locations.

Remote Monitoring + Sampler Commands

The 2105C (CDMA) and 2105G (GSM) Cellular Interface Modules allow the user to remotely enable an Isco Model 6712 portable or Avalanche portable refrigerated wastewater sampler while simultaneously monitoring current site conditions, with flow and water quality data logged and transferred to a secure server database. Immediate access to data and the ability to send commands to a sampler from off-site can reduce labor and fuel costs. Additionally, the user can wait until a storm has passed to retrieve the samples, meaning safer working conditions.

Basic Operation

The primary functions of the system are:

  • Log real-time water quality and flow data
  • Automatic sampler enabling by predetermined conditions
  • Push data to secure server 
  • Remotely enable/pace sampler
  • Retrieve sampling reports

For more information, visit or call 407-324-7800.

What is Inferential Measurement? An Understanding Through Differential Pressure Level Control

Level control using delta-P tranmitter
Level control using delta-P transmitter.*
Differential pressure transmitters are utilized in the process control industry to represent the difference between two pressure measurements. One of the ways in which differential pressure (DP) transmitters accomplish this goal of evaluating and communicating differential pressure is by a process called inferential measurement. Inferential measurement calculates the value of a particular process variable through measurement of other variables which may be easier to evaluate. Pressure itself is technically measured inferentially. Thanks to the fact numerous variables are relatable to pressure measurements, there are multiple ways for DP transmitters to be useful in processes not solely related to pressure and vacuum.

An example of inferential measurement via DP transmitter is the way in which the height of a vertical liquid column will be proportional to the pressure generated by gravitational force on the vertical column. The differential pressure transmitter measures the pressure exerted by the contained liquid. That pressure is related to the height of the liquid in the vessel and can be used to calculate the liquid depth, mass, and volume. The gravitational constant allows the pressure transmitter to serve as a liquid level sensor for liquids with a known density. A true differential pressure transmitter also enables liquid level calculations in vessels that may be pressurized.

Gas and liquid flow are two common elements maintained and measured in process control. Fluid flow rate through a pipe can be measured with a differential pressure transmitter and the inclusion of a restricting device that creates a change in fluid static pressure. In this case, the pressure in the pipe is directly related to the flow rate when fluid density is constant. A carefully machined metal plate called an orifice plate serves as the restricting device in the pipe. The fluid in the pipe flows through the opening in the orifice plate and experiences an increase in velocity and decrease in pressure. The two input ports of the DP transmitter measure static pressure upstream and downstream of the orifice plate. The change in pressure across the orifice plate, combined with other fluid characteristics, can be used to calculate the flow rate.

Process environments use pressure measurement to inferentially determine level, volume, mass, and flow rate. Using one measurable element as a surrogate for another is a useful application, so long as the relationship between the measured property (differential pressure) and the inferred measurement (flow rate, liquid level) is not disrupted by changes in process conditions or by unmeasured disturbances. Industries with suitably stable processes - food and beverage, chemical, water treatment - are able to apply inferential measurement related to pressure and a variable such as flow rate with no detectable impact on the ability to measure important process variables.

* Image courtesy of T. Kuphaldt and his book "Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation"

Instrument Specialties, Inc. - ISI Technical Group

Instrument Specialties is in the business of helping customers improve and implement their processes and applications. A professional agency with a focused, creative, and aggressive staff, ISI takes a long term relationship approach to business.

Teledyne ISCO accQlink™ Provides Water and Wastewater Plants Modular and Flexible Remote Data Acquisition

Teledyne ISCO accQlink
The Teledyne ISCO accQlink™ accepts multiple inputs, including RS232, RS485, SDI-12, analog, and/or contact output. The robust design includes autonomous field operation using battery, solar, or permanent power sources.  Data is accumulated from a variety of sensor types, transmitted securely, and stored either in cloud storage and/or a customer server. Data can be easily integrated into the facility SCADA system, modeling software, business intelligence platform, ISCO Flowlink Pro, or other software.

ISCO cloud server allows for the viewing and management of data from anywhere with an Internet connection. ISCO cloud server also includes a graphical data management Web User Interface and can be programmed to send text or email alerts at preprogrammed thresholds.

During data transmission from accQlink™, a built in Global SIM card chooses the strongest available cell signal and cell networks, ensuring maximum uptime. A yearly service plant includes all cell phone charges, data hosting, and web user interface. Finally, the accQlink™ offers digital communication options such as LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network), Bluetooth, and Satellite.

  • Overflow monitoring (CSO and SSO)
  • I&I, cMOM, ad other collection system monitoring
  • Wet well monitoring in Pump stations
  • Stormwater runoff monitoring
  • Weather monitoring
  • Water quality monitoring
Standard Features:
  • Rugged Design with IP 68 Enclosure
  • Data encrytion for cyber security
  • Cloud data hosting and intuitive Web UI
  • Automatic alerts via SMS and email
For more information about the Teledyne ISCO accQlink™ contact Instrument Specialties by visiting or calling 407-324-7800.

Wireless Data Access For Water Quality Monitoring Instumentation

water quality measuring instrument sonde
The Aqua Troll 500 provides wireless access to
multi-parameter water quality measurement.
Water quality monitoring, whether for environmental studies, research or regulatory compliance is an operation that can benefit from instruments that automate or otherwise increase the efficiency of sample collection, measurement and data storage.

In-Situ Inc., manufacturer of reliable, top quality water monitoring equipment, adds to their already comprehensive line of portable and fixed installation water quality measurement instruments with the Aqua Troll 500. The instrument is a multiparameter sonde that can be used as a handheld device, with data transmitted to a smartphone running the Android data collection app. For fixed installations, the Aqua Troll can be integrated wirelessly into a telemetry system to deliver collected data to remote stations.

Some applications include:
  • Surface water spot sampling and profiling
  • Remote monitoring via telemetry
  • Long-term drinking water, wastewater or stormwater monitoring
  • Aquaculture
  • Low-flow groundwater sampling and remediation
Numerous features of the instrument are incorporated to decrease the amount of time required by technicians to put the instrument into operation and maintain it. The datasheet included below provides additional detail. Share your water quality measurement requirements and challenges with instrumentation experts. Leverage your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop an effective solution.

Mapping Gas and Flame Detectors to Deliver Accurate Coverage

oil refinery
Determining the proper location layout for hazardous gas
detectors is key to ensuring an acceptable level of safety.
MSA is committed to supporting operators of industrial facilities in their efforts to promote safe work environments that benefit employees, contractors and the community. Devices and instruments for flame and hazardous gas detection and monitoring are a part of the MSA family of safety products.

The ability to detect the presence and level of gases that may be hazardous is incorporated in physical devices and their function is well understood. The challenge faced by plant and facility operators is determining the locations for sensing devices throughout the facility that will provide an effective level of protection. MSA has a flame and gas mapping solution that employs quantitative models and actual facility conditions to provide a high level of confidence that overall target performance for flame and gas detection is achieved.

More information is provided in the document included below. Share your flame and gas detection challenges with the experts. Leverage your own knowledge and experience with their product application resources and develop a successful solution.

Refrigerant Leakage Monitor for Multiple Refrigerants

Monitoring HVAC machinery spaces for the presence of leaked refrigerant is driven by compliance, economic and safety concerns. Refrigerant gas can displace oxygen and lead to unbreathable atmosphere in enclosed spaces. On the economic front, refrigerant is expensive, and leakage must be replaced. Additionally, slowly leaking refrigerant will eventually result in system charge levels that negatively impact system operation and performance.

The MSA Chillgard 5000 monitors the levels of up to six selected refrigerants, providing alerts in the machine space, as well as an external alarm and activation of mechanical ventilation. The sensing technology can detect levels as low as 1 ppm, providing earliest possible warning of an alert condition.

The short video demonstrates the features of the unit that deliver reliability, versatility, stability and ease of operation and maintenance. Share your refrigeration machinery room monitoring requirements and challenges with a product specialist. Leverage your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop an effective solution.

Monitoring Stormwater Runoff

stormwater runoff monitoring station schematic
Schematic of stormwater runoff station instrument and
equipment setup.
Image courtesy Teledyne/ISCO
Rain rinses the local area surfaces, cleaning them and concentrating all the soils, chemicals, and other loosened substances in stormwater runoff. The chemical composition of stormwater runoff can be complex, depending upon the activities conducted in the collection area. Stormwater runoff ultimately ends up in surface waters, rivers, lakes, streams, swamps, bays and oceans.

Stormwater runoff has been identified as a major contributor to surface water pollution. The current regulatory climate makes increasing demands on a number of local, municipal and private entities to monitor and analyze stormwater runoff to gather data that supports pollution control efforts and environmental studies.

Configuring an active stormwater collection and measurement system can be challenging. Teledyne ISCO, experts in environmental monitoring, crafted an application note that summarizes the hardware requirements for a typical system to be placed in the field. The app not is included below, but best results for a particular application or system will be achieved by sharing your environmental monitoring challenges with instrumentation specialists. Leverage your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise and develop an effective solution.

Water Quality Monitoring for Environmental Studies and Compliance

water quality measurement sonde
The right package of water quality instrument features
enhances effectiveness of field deployment.
Image courtesy In Situ, Inc.
There are many reasons to measure and monitor environmental water quality, chief among them compliance with local, state, or federal requirements. Other applications may call for water quality monitoring for environmental studies of various types. A sonde is an instrument used to collect water quality measurement data in the field. Whatever the issues driving a need for gathering environmental water data, selecting an instrument that combines accuracy, ruggedness, and ease of use can minimize the time and cost involved. There are a number of features to look for.

  • Corrosion resistant construction that tolerates a wide range of targeted water sources.
  • Minimized and simple setup procedure for quick deployment
  • Low maintenance burden
  • Smart sensor technology for best accuracy
  • Extended measurement range for all parameters to accommodate broad range of water sources
  • Low training requirement for technicians to be proficient at deploying sonde in the field
  • Minimal sensor drift to increase available time in field and accuracy
  • Modest or low frequency requirement for sensor calibration
  • Sensor measurement stability. Higher level allows longer field deployment intervals.
  • Sensors that are easily changed or replaced without need for high levels of technical training. Also allows for reconfiguring measurement scheme to target different constituents in the water.
  • Sensors available for RDO, pH/ORP, turbidity, conductivity, temperature, pressure
  • On board diagnostics monitor instrument operation for error
  • Active and passive anti-fouling systems to automatically clean sensors, removing foreign matter that can impact measurements
  • Extended field deployment time with low power consumption
  • Real time data access, as well as on board data storage and other options for flexible data delivery.
These are some of the features that can result in effective data gathering and reduced manpower requirements to accomplish the task at hand. Share your water quality monitoring requirements with instrumentation specialists. Leverage your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop an effective solution.

Kammer Brand Valves Targeted at Special Applications

Control valve for severe service and high pressure drop.
Image courtesy Flowserve - Kammer
Kammer, a brand of the Flowserve Corporation, manufactures automatic control valves, with a focus on special applications. Specific products of the company are targeted at fluid control operation in applications with:
  • Low temperatures, extending to cryogenic.
  • High pressure, up to 60,000 psi.
  • Corrosive media
  • Low and micro flow
  • Sanitary and aseptic requirements
  • Severe service
Kammer also manufactures actuators for automating valve operation. The brochure provided below provides an overview of the Kammer product line of linear control valves for targeted applications. Share your fluid control requirements and challenges with a valve specialist and develop an effective solution by leveraging your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise.

Continuous In-Line Measurement of Process Liquid Viscosity

continuous process viscosity measurement instrument
In-line process viscosity measurement system.
Image courtesy Krohne, Inc.
Among the many analytical instruments from Krohne is the Viscoline process viscosity measurement system. It provides continuous in-line measurement of process liquid viscosity.

Krohne describes the operating principle...
The fluid flows through a continuous pipe containing two low pressure drop static mixers. The sensor device measures the pressure drop at both static mixers by means of two differential pressure measurements: ΔP1 and ΔP2. Precise pipe flow rate measurement is obtained from the integrated KROHNE OPTIMASS 7000 straight tube Coriolis meter which is uniquely insensitive to fluid viscosity effects. From the two pressure drop measurements and the flow rat reading, the fluid flow parameters are processed in the system, and the pipeline viscosity is determined. A temperature reading can be useful for thermal correction when a reference measurement is required. Such correction requires laboratory thermal characterization or dual measurement.
For solutions to your process measurement and control challenges, share them with an instrumentation specialist. Leverage your own process knowledge and experience with their product application expertise.

Zero Bleed Pneumatic Controller for Industrial Valves

zero bleed pneumatic valve controller
The PICO consists of a single logic control head
and a digital filter booster
Image courtesy Bifold - Rotork
A true zero bleed pneumatic position controller for valve actuators is available under the Bifold brand, part of Rotork Instruments. The product, called PICO, consists of a single logic control head and a digital filter booster. The control head unit provides bluetooth communications, ESD monitoring and control, graphic display, integral valve feedback measurement, low power modes, a partial stroke test feature and local control setting switch. The properly installed assembly is suitable for use in hazardous locations.
zero bleed pneumatic valve controller installed on pneumatically actuated valve
The PICO installed on a pneumatically
actuated valve.
Image courtesy Bifold - Rotork

The new control unit is capable of fulfilling applications employing positional control, on/off and ESD (emergency shutdown) valves. The filter booster allows the small size of the PICO to deliver the flow rate of a substantially larger system of conventional design.

The PICO provides a number of operational benefits to pneumatic actuated valve applications. More information is available from product application specialists, with whom you should share your valve control and actuation challenges to get positive and effective solutions.

Automated Water Sampler

portable automated water sampler
Automated water sampler is programmable to meet
a variety of water testing protocols.
Image courtesy Teledyne ISCO
Part of many water monitoring operations is the regular gathering of field samples for analysis. Teledyne Isco manufactures an array of water sampling equipment and supplies to meet the broad range of application requirements found in field operations.

The Model 3700 is a portable sampler designed for use in water and wastewater treatment plants, stormwater runoff monitoring, and industrial wastewater applications. The construction and configuration of the unit accommodates the range of aggressive environmental conditions often found at water sampling sites.

The portable water sampler is equipped with a controller, sampling system and storage bay, all integrated into a single unit that will gather water samples in accordance with a preprogrammed schedule and hold them until the unit is retrieved at the end of its cycle.

More detailed information is provided in the datasheet included below. Share your water quality monitoring and measurement challenges with application specialists, leveraging your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop an effective solution.

Non-Contact Area Velocity Flow Measurement Using Advanced Laser Doppler Technology

laser Doppler flow velocity sensor for open channel flow measurement
Non-contact flow measurement in open channels is
effectively conducted with laser doppler technology
Image courtesy Teledyne ISCO
An effective way to measure liquid flow in open channels employs a combination of non-contact Laser Doppler Velocity technology and non-contact Ultrasonic Level technology. Teledyne ISCO manufactures a variant of their LaserFlow non-contact flow meter that incorporates both velocity and depth sensors into a single compact unit. The sensor uses advanced technology to measure velocity with a laser at single or multiple points below the surface of the water or wastewater stream.

An ultrasonic level sensor provides the depth of the flow, and the system determines a sub-surface point at which to measure velocity. The sensor then focuses the laser at the designated point and measures the frequency shift of the returned light.

This sensor is ideal for a broad range of wastewater monitoring applications and is compatible with readily available flow meters.

With optional continuous wave Doppler Ultrasonic Area Velocity technology flow measurement continues without interruption even while submerged.

A specially designed mounting bracket enables deployment of the sensor in a manner that permits removal from street level, avoiding the risk and expense of confined space entry. A variety of communication options enable programming and data retrieval from a remote location as well. Built-in diagnostic tools simplify installation, maintenance, and advanced communication options reduce site visits.

The sensor provides excellent system versatility across a wide variety of industrial applications to manhole installations, with many configuration options providing the flexibility to measure flow in most open channel applications.

Depending on your application needs, the device can be programmed to take velocity measurements at single or multiple points below the water's surface, producing an accurate mean velocity reading.

In applications where the level measurement point of the built-in ultrasonic and the measurement point of the laser velocity are of different elevations, such as a freefalling outfall or drop manhole, the remote ultrasonic option can be used so that both measurement points reference the same elevation.

During submerged conditions, the optional bottom-mounted area velocity sensor seamlessly takes over the flow rate measurement. The sensor provides ultrasonic Doppler velocity measurement and Differential Pressure level measurement. This option measures flow in the pipe/channel. By measuring velocity over a large area, the ultrasonic Doppler technology provides more accurate flow measurement during submerged conditions.

For redundant flow measurement at critical monitoring sites, a unique flexibility is added by an optional sensor which is mounted at the bottom of the pipe. This sensor provides redundant velocity, level, and flow data from the same site as the device.

Following initial installation and adjustment, the sensor can be installed or removed as needed without manhole entry in most situations, using the optional sensor retrieval arm to grasp the handle. The handle's simple yet effective locking mechanism holds the sensor securely in place, and is easy to engage and release from above ground.

Share your open channel flow measurement challenges with measurement instrumentation experts. Leverage your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop an effective solution.

Industrial Bulb and Capillary Temperature Switches

weatherproof temperature switch
Weatherproof temperature switch, one of many variants.
Image courtesy SOR, Inc.
Not all processes or operations require the use of state of the art technology to get the desired results. Part of good process design is matching up the most appropriate methods and technology to the operation.

One method of changing the state of a switch in response to a process temperature change is a bulb and capillary temperature switch. The switch operation produces a state change in the mechanical switch when the temperature of a process control operation crosses a certain threshold. Bulb and capillary switches have the advantage of operating without electricity, simplifying their application.

The physical operating principle behind the capillary thermostat relies on the use of a fluid. The fluid inside the thermostat expands or contracts in response to the temperature at the sensing bulb. The change in fluid volume produces a force upon a diaphragm or other mechanical transfer device. The diaphragm is connected to, and changes the status of, an adjoining circuit using a snap action switch. For example, a main use of the operating principle in action is when a commercial food company relies on the capillary switch to control temperature related to processing and distribution. Each individual use of a bulb and capillary thermostat is specifically designed based on manufacturer and industry specifications, all of which apply the same physical principle of fluid based physics.

Because of their simplicity and comparatively modest cost, commercial versions of bulb and capillary switches find application throughout residential and commercial settings. Some common applications include warming ovens, deep fat fryers, and water heaters. The HVAC industry uses capillary and bulb switches because the rate of temperature change found in their applications fits the adjoining range offered by the bulb and capillary type switches. Operation of the temperature switches is subject to a few limitations. The switching point is often fixed, so the application must be without a requirement for an adjustable setpoint. The temperature range over which the switches are suitable is comparatively limited, with a matching of the bulb and capillary fluid system to the application temperature range a necessary task in product selection. Within its proper sphere of use, though, bulb and capillary temperature switches offer simple, reliable operation, with little requirement for maintenance.

Bulb and capillary switches are typically used to evaluate average temperature and are especially useful for applications where the temperature is to be maintained at a well-known, consistent value. The bulb portion can be configured to accommodate mounting within the media to be controlled. The devices can be applied effectively to liquid and gaseous media when the proper bulb is used.

Industrial versions of bulb and capillary switches are fitted with appropriate housings for the installation environment. Hazardous location installation can be accommodated, as well as high current ratings and auxiliary functions. There are almost countless variants of bulb and capillary temperature switches available. Don’t overlook these simple mechanical devices as candidates for application in any temperature control process. Share your application requirements and challenges with product specialists for useful recommendations.

Sight Flow Indicators

sight flow indicator with flange connections
Sight flow indicators give operators a rapid and direct
means of verifying process flow.
Image courtesy Clark Reliance - Jacoby-Tarbox
Industrial process operations involving fluids benefit greatly from advanced instrumentation and measure, but there may be instances where a visual confirmation or assessment of fluid flow is useful or necessary. In those cases, a direct reading sight flow indicator is just the thing needed to fill the requirement.

The sight flow indicator is essentially a clear window or tube with an encasement and appropriate connections that facilitate its installation into a process piping system. It is installed in a manner that provides an operator visual access to the inside of the piping at that location. Further details about construction materials, armoring, and more will round out the product selection that best accommodates the industrial environment, the media, and the visual inspection needs.

Jacoby-Tarbox manufactures a range of  fluid processing and measurement products, including sight flow indicators, for industrial use. Their sight flow indicators, available in a broad range of line sizes and connections, enable a process operator to get that all important visual inspection of liquid or gaseous media flow in real time. The presence, color and character of the media can be assessed visually through the flow indicator, delivering visual confirmation of some targeted aspect of the process.

Share your process flow and level measurement challenges with instrumentation specialists, leveraging your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop an effective solution.